Obviously, the Original Twelve had the hand of God on their lives. They had the call. They had the anointing of the Almighty, and so regardless of their background or upbringing, they were used mightily by the Lord to accomplish His tasks and His assignments. But the problem is where we misunderstand what they did prior to their time of being called out by the Messiah. They may have not been as formally trained as the Apostle Paul, but they would have had a greater training in and exposure to the Scriptures than certainly most people who today attend Sunday school.
They would have been exposed to the world around them through the many travelers who came through First Century Israel for commerce. Today, we face an unfortunate situation where people think they can get away with teaching the Scriptures as those who have little or no formal training, and not only little or no formal training, but are unwilling to submit themselves to any training whatsoever. Education is sometimes viewed as being a problem, as opposed to a solution.
While it is true that education is not always a good thing, as one must have applied knowledge in the workplace or ministry field, if one has no training or does not know about the appropriate tools to use, we can have a serious problem on our hands. What do I mean by problems? If this is what you have been told, then you are sadly mistaken. James Strong, a former president of Troy University and professor of exegetical theology at Drew Theological Seminary. For the time, this work was monumental. Strong based his concordance on the King James Bible and catalogued important Biblical words, phrases, and concepts.
Also included in his concordance was a Hebrew and Greek dictionary. However, today this is easily solved with a few keystrokes in a Bible software program, and multiple Bible versions can be searched. Certainly, while standing the test of time can be important, it can also be a problem.
It is a problem because our knowledge of Biblical times and of Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Greek is always changing and improving. What we know today in the early Twenty-First Century about the Bible and the languages in which it was originally written, has changed as new scholarship and research, combined with archaeology and renewed contact with the Biblical lands, has developed much more. It must be where the Bible student begins first looking at Hebrew and Greek words, but by no means should be where the student stops.
Compare G As I began to formally study Hebrew and Greek in , my resource array greatly expanded. But I knew that there was more and that my resource library was going to have to expand. I could not simply acquire every Hebrew or Greek lexicon on the market immediately, but I knew that as my abilities to work with these languages grew, so would my resource library have to grow. Each Hebrew and Greek dictionary and lexicon I presently use now in has its strong and weak points, and that is why I have several of them. There are resources available at your disposal, which are not expensive or cost-prohibitive, and many of them are available as modules in many Bible software programs today.
In the remainder of this article, I will discuss some tools that I highly recommend for any Biblical student for his or her reference library. Hopefully, if you are an aspiring Messianic Bible teacher, you will take note of these materials and begin adding them to your library if you have not already done so. It was a resource that we had in our family library which I starting taking notice of very quickly when I began my detailed examinations of the Bible in As soon as I started using it in early as my primary Bible, a new world of Biblical research was opened up to me and I could scarcely put it down.
I recommend NASB because it is the most literal Christian Bible translation on the market today, and as such alternative renderings of Hebrew and Greek words can be easily inserted. What makes this Bible an excellent resource is that each book is preceded by an introduction, setting the theme of the book, there is a running commentary for important passages, and it is laced with many cross-references. These include selective definitions of various Hebrew and Greek words, but the definitions are elongated and important to consult.
A nice place to start in the Bible itself is the lexical aids section, which is expanded in two dictionaries, one for the Old Testament and one for the New Testament, produced by AMG Publishers. This dictionary includes an expanded version of the Hebrew definitions included in the Old Testament lexical aids section of the Hebrew-Greek Key Study Bible. These definitions of Hebrew words are detailed, but are not too complicated to understand. Not only is a definition of a Hebrew word provided, but also a brief theological explanation is given.
What makes this dictionary useful is because it includes detailed definitions of Greek words, with some theological significance. The definitions are not difficult to understand. And, more than anything else, its editor, Spiros Zodhiates, is a native Greek. I recommend this resource for every reference library, and think that it is a worthwhile investment on your behalf if you really have no intentions of learning any rudimentary Biblical Greek.
Editor: Francis Brown, S. ISBN: The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon has been widely considered to be one of the most comprehensive lexicons on Biblical Hebrew available on the market. It was first produced in , and since then has undergone numerous reprints. This lexicon is based on the work of the German Hebraist Wilhelm Gesenius, who helped to first formalize the study of Biblical Hebrew lexicography. This is a very popular work with Bible students, and because of its longevity it is required for any theological library. I recommend using the hard copy book much more than just the electronic Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Definitions which will only tell you the definitions of Hebrew words, as opposed to giving you the definitions and then a summary of how they are used in the Biblical text.
Author: Joseph H. Thayer Publisher: Hendrickson Publishers, reprint.
Thayer has been considered to be a popular Greek lexicon available for college students. This lexicon is intended to be used by both who are experts in Biblical Greek, as well as those who are novices or do not even know any at all.
Authors: R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr. Waltke Publisher: Moody Publishers, The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament is intended to be an intermediary book between Hebrew lexicons such as Brown-Driver-Briggs, and much more extensive works such as the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament which runs into many volumes. The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament is a resource whereby each Biblical Hebrew word of the Scriptures is dissected, examined from a linguistic perspective, and then examined from a theological perspective.
Each word is examined in much greater detail than most theological dictionaries employed, as the editors discuss how Hebrew words are used in Scripture, what the original writers of the Hebrew Bible were likely meaning when they used them, and how theological value judgments have been made from the usages of these words.
When I need a detailed, but not overwhelming, definition and explanation of a Hebrew word, I go to the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. I believe that because of its non-overwhelming nature, you will find it to be a valuable resource. Editor: W. Vine Publisher: Thomas Nelson, reprint. I SBN: Vine, a British Greek scholar, is widely recognized as having been an expert in the field of Biblical Greek studies. Vine, when necessary, also goes into usages of Greek words in the Septuagint and classical materials.
His definitions and explanations are not difficult to follow, yet are thorough at the same time. This can be easier to look up, but does have some limitations if you are unfamiliar with Biblical Greek. Unger and William White, Jr. The main concordance lists each word that appears in the KJV Bible in alphabetical order with each verse in which it appears listed in order of its appearance in the Bible, with a snippet of the surrounding text including the word in italics.
Appearing to the right of the scripture reference is the Strong's number; this allows the user of the concordance to look up the meaning of the original language word in the associated dictionary in the back, thereby showing how the original language word was translated into the English word in the KJV Bible.
New editions of Strong's may exclude the comparative section KJV to and the asterisks that denote differential definitions of the same Hebrew or Greek words; due perhaps to denominational considerations, definitions may also be altered. Although the Greek words in Strong's Concordance are numbered 1—, the numbers and — are unassigned due to "changes in the enumeration while in progress". Not every distinct word is assigned a number, but only the root words.
Other authors have used Strong's numbers in concordances of other Bible translations, such as the New International Version and American Standard Version. Due to Strong's numbers it became possible to translate concordances from one language into another. Kirkbride Bible Company, Inc. New editions of Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible remain in print as of [update]. In the preface to both dictionaries, Strong explains that these are "brief and simple" dictionaries, not meant to replace reference to "a more copious and elaborate Lexicon. His dictionaries were meant to give students a quick and simple way to look up words and have a general idea of their meaning.
According to the preface, he and his team also made "numerous original suggestions, relations, and distinctions An important feature of Strong's dictionaries is the listing of every translation of a source word in the AV King James after the definition itself. It is important to note Strong's association with the committee working on the American Revised Version of the Bible, his work does not tend to support the authority of the King James Version.
He was part of the effort to update and replace it with what the translators believed would be a better version; as a result, he contributed deeper and more thorough study of Biblical languages, especially etymology, but also an inherently suspicious attitude toward the Textus Receptus , the King James, and toward traditional, less "secular" definitions of original words. The translation committee was associated with the Higher Critical movement and with the Westcott-Hort version of the Greek text.
Strong, a Methodist layman and college professor, was acceptable to the committee, but one cannot assume he shared all of its views. By the time its copyright was renewed in , it had come to be known by its present name, the American Standard Version; because of its prominence in seminaries , it was in America sometimes called the "Standard Bible". An invitation was extended to American religious leaders for scholars to work on the RV project.
In , thirty scholars were chosen by Philip Schaff. These scholars began work in Dwight and Matthew Riddle. Any suggestion of the American Revision Committee would only be accepted if two-thirds of the British Revisers agreed; this principle was backed up by an agreement that if their suggestions were put into the appendix of the RV, the American Committee would not publish their version for 15 years. The appendix had about three hundred suggestions in it; the Revised Version New Testament was published in , the Old Testament in , the Apocrypha in Around this time, the British team disbanded.
Around this time, unauthorized copied editions of the RV appeared with the suggestions of the American team in the main text; this was possible because while the RV in the UK was the subject of a Crown copyright as a product of the University Presses of Oxford and Cambridge, this protection did not extend to the U.
In , publishers for Oxford and Cambridge Universities published their own editions of the RV with the American suggestions included. However, these suggestions were reduced in number; some of those Americanized editions by Oxford and Cambridge Universities had the title of "American Revised Version" on the cover of their spines.
In , the International Council of Religious Education acquired the copyright from Nelson and renewed it the following year. The copyright was a reaction to tampering with the text of the Revised Version by some U. By the time the ASV's copyright expired for the final time in , interest in this translation had waned in the light of newer and more recent ones, textual corruption hence never became the issue with the ASV that it had with the RV; because the language of the ASV intentionally retained the King James Version's Elizabethan English , was printed with comparatively lower quality materials, because of what some perceived to be its excessive literalism, it never achieved wide popularity, the King James Version would remain the primary translation for most American Protestant Christians until the publication of the Revised Standard Version in There were two rationales for the ASV.
One reason was to obviate any justification for the unauthorized copied editions of the RV, circulating. Another reason was to use more of the suggestions the American team had preferred, since the British team used few of their suggestions in the first place in the version which they had published incorporating some of them.
While many of the suggestions of the American scholars were based on the differences between American and British usage, many others were based on differences in scholarship and what the American revisers felt the best translation to be. However, there are notably seven verses in the King James Bible where the divine name appears which are Genesis , Exodus , Exodus , Judges , Psalms , Isaiah and Isaiah plus as it's abbreviated form, once in Psalms ; the English Revised Version renders the Tetragrammaton as Jehovah where it appears in the King James Version, another eight times in Exodus ,6—8, Psalm.
It was the first and remains the only authorised and recognised revision of the King James Version in Britain; the work was entrusted to over 50 scholars from various denominations in Britain. American scholars were invited by correspondence; the New Testament was published in , the Old Testament in , the Apocrypha in The best known of the translation committee members were Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort ; the New Testament revision company was commissioned in by the convocation of Canterbury.
Their stated aim was "to adapt King James' version to the present state of the English language without changing the idiom and vocabulary," and "to adapt it to the present standard of Biblical scholarship. The readings used were compiled from a different text of the Greek Testament by Edwin Palmer. While the text of the translation itself is regarded as excessively literal and flat, the Revised Version is significant in the history of English Bible translation for many reasons. At the time of the RV's publication, the nearly year-old King James Version was the main Protestant English Bible in Victorian England ; the RV, therefore, is regarded as the forerunner of the entire modern translation tradition.
It was considered more accurate than the King James Version in a number of verses; the revisers were charged with introducing alterations only if they were deemed necessary to be more accurate and faithful to the Original Greek and Hebrew texts. In the New Testament alone more than 30, changes were made, over 5, on the basis of what were considered better Greek manuscripts; the work was begun in , with the entire work completed in Ellison, F. Bruce , Clarence Larkin , in their works.
Other important enhancements introduced in the RV include arrangement of the text into paragraphs, printing Old Testament poetry in indented poetic lines, the inclusion of marginal notes to alert the reader to variations in wording in ancient manuscripts.
In its Apocrypha, the Revised Version became the first printed edition in English to offer the complete text of Second Esdras, inasmuch as damage to one 9th-century manuscript had caused 70 verses to be omitted from previous editions and printed versions, including the King James Version. In the United States , the Revised Version was adapted and revised as the "Revised Version, Standard American Edition" in ; the American Standard Version is identical to the Revised Version of , with minor variations in wording considered to be more accurate.
The Revised Version are some of the Bible versions that are authorized to be used in services of the Episcopal Church and of the Church of England. The American Standard Version was the basis for many revisions in the first hundred years after it was released; the RV itself has never been the basis for any revision except for the American Standard Version and the Apocrypha in the Revised Standard Version. As the Revised Version is out of copyright worldwide, it is available online and in digital formats although it is less popular than the KJV or the ASV in this manner.
Retrieved March 22, Hall, Isaac H. Palmer, Edwin. London : Simon Wallenberg Press, Wheaton, IL : Crossway. Cambridge: At the University Press, Ix, p. Wegner, Paul D. Editors: Moulton, W. The interlinear Bi. Drew has been nicknamed the "University in the Forest" because of its wooded acre campus; as of fall , more than 2, students were pursuing degrees at the university's three schools. In , financier and railroad tycoon Daniel Drew purchased an estate in Madison to establish a theological seminary to train candidates for Christian ministry; the seminary expanded to offer an undergraduate liberal arts curriculum in and graduate studies in The College of Liberal Arts , serving 1, undergraduate students, offers strong concentrations in the natural sciences, social sciences and literatures, humanities and the arts, in several interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary fields; the Drew Theological School, the third-oldest of thirteen Methodist seminaries affiliated with the United Methodist Church enrolls students preparing for careers in the ministry and the academic study of theology.
The Caspersen School of Graduate Studies, enrolling graduate students, offers master's and doctoral degrees in a variety of specialized and interdisciplinary fields. While affiliated with the Methodist faith, Drew University makes no religious demands of its students. Although many of the Theological School's students and faculty are Methodists, students of all faiths are admitted to any program within the university; the United Methodist Church's General Commission on Archives and History is located on campus.
The university hosts the Shakespeare Theatre of New Jersey , an independent professional theatre company; the university sits on the former estate of William Gibbons, a southern gentleman who owned the New York—New Jersey steamboat business that became famous from the Gibbons v. Ogden case, who pieced together a acre estate in Madison, New Jersey in The following year, Gibbons commissioned the design and construction of a Greek revival antebellum-style residence, completed in Drew, a devout Methodist, donated the estate to the church to establish a Methodist theological seminary; the estate's mansion would be renamed " Mead Hall " in honor of Roxanna Mead.
Drew's academic buildings feature a mix of Greek Revival , Collegiate Gothic , neoclassical architecture on a acre campus, a serene, wooded oasis in the middle of a bustling suburban town; the campus features the Drew Forest Preserve , an acre expanse, restored with the planting of 1, native trees and shrubs by the university community and volunteer assistance from pharmaceutical manufacturer Pfizer , the US Fish and Wildlife Service , the New Jersey Audubon Society.
The university's campus features the Florence and Robert Zuck Arboretum, named for two botany faculty members, containing a mixture of native and non-native trees and two small glacial ponds supporting populations of turtles, goldfish and muskrats , various species of birds including migratory fowl such as Canada geese and herons.
The preserve and arboretum both provide a natural laboratory for the instruction of students in the study of biology and life sciences and for research, but is open to the public by appointment. According to the New Jersey chapter of the Audubon Society , the arboretum and forest preserve is "important for groundwater recharge and runoff reduction within the Passaic River watershed and the Buried Valley Aquifer System".
In , Daniel Drew approached church leaders during the Methodist Centenary Celebration with an offer to build and endow a theological seminary near New York City. Drew asked that John McClintock , be appointed lead the seminary as its first president. Instruction began under the direction of McClintock as both president and professor of practical theology after the first students were admitted in Drew is the third-oldest of thirteen Methodist seminaries affiliated with the United Methodist Church.
Drew offered professional training for candidates to the ministry augmented by "an opportunity for a broad culture through the study of the humanities. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament , an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha , the 27 books of the New Testament ; the translation is noted for its "majesty of style", has been described as one of the most important books in English culture and a driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world. On the European continent, the first generation of Calvinists had produced the Geneva Bible of from the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, influential in the writing of the Authorized King James Version.
In January , King James convened the Hampton Court Conference , where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans , a faction of the Church of England. James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of, reflect the episcopal structure of, the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy; the translation was done by 47 scholars. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England.
Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most printed book in history all such printings presenting the standard text of extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha.
The title page carries the words "Appointed to be read in Churches", F. For many years it was common not to give the translation any specific name. A "Brief Account of the various Translations of the Bible into English" refers to the version as a new and more accurate Translation, despite referring to the Great Bible by its name, despite using the name "Rhemish Testament" for the Douay-Rheims Bible version. A " History of England ", whose fifth edition was published in , writes that new translation of the Bible , viz. Other works from the early 19th century confirm the widespread use of this name on both sides of the Atlantic: it is found both in a "Historical sketch of the English translations of the Bible" published in Massachusetts in , in an English publication from , which explicitly states that the version is "generally known by the name of King James's Bible".
This name was found as King James' Bible: for example in a book review from The phrase "King James's Bible" is used as far back as , although in this case it is not clear whether this is a name or a description; the use of Authorized Version and used as a name, is found as early as For some time before this, descriptive phrases such as "our present, only publicly authorised version", "our Authorized version", "the authorized version" are found; the Oxford English Dictionary records a usage in In Britain, the translation is known as the "Authorized Version" today; as early as , we find King James' Version, evidently a descriptive phrase, being used.
The next year King James Bible, with no possessive, appears as a name in a Scottish source. In the United States , the " translation" is generally. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world.
It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies ; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music.
The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles , twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius ; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in , but it is probable that a Council in Rome in under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era , in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD.
All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around AD. John A. Robinson , Dan Wallace , William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD. Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew , Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture.
Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity , has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin , the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah , was rendered testamentum in Hebrews and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. John Wycliffe's version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel , with the house of Judah.
For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion , written c. And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses , centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets.
By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius , a 3rd—4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae : But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
The lexicon is now in its ninth edition. According to Stuart Jones's preface to the ninth edition, the creation of the Lexicon was proposed by David Alphonso Talboys , an Oxford publisher. It was published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford rather than by Talboys because he died before the first edition was complete.
For comparisons between the two works, see the article on Lewis and Short's dictionary, it is sometimes compared with the Bauer lexicon, a similar work focused on the Greek of the New Testament. Greek scholars use these books so much that two short memorable clerihews have been written to describe the seminal work: 1.
Hebrew Names King James Bible with Strong's Concordance (Student's Edition) - Kindle edition by First Gospel Publications. Download it once and read it on. KJV King James Bible with Strong's Concordance (Student's Edition) - Kindle edition by First Gospel Publications. Download it The Jew a Negro: Being a Study of the Jewish Ancestry from an Impartial Standpoint Your name here.
Two condensed editions of LSJ remain in print. Several revised editions followed. For example, a reprint, re-typeset in , of the edition is available from Simon Wallenberg Press. In comparison to the smaller abridgement, this "Middle Liddell" contains more entries covering the essential vocabulary of most read Ancient Greek literature, adds citations of the authors to illustrate the history of Greek usage, provides more help with irregular forms. After the publication of the ninth edition in , shortly after the deaths of both Stuart Jones and McKenzie, the OUP maintained a list of addenda et corrigenda, bound with subsequent printings.