Big world around tiny star puts new spin on planet formation Sep 26, User comments. Jan 22, For those that have been claiming there is no images of the black hole in the center of our galaxy: Will you now accept that you are wrong? Report Block. Da Schneib. I'm going with "no," since they'll still be denying it's a black hole. They'll do the same with EHT images. It is possible that multiple lensing and aspects of the physical degeneracy of the source BH region and its measurement produce an illusion that resolved emission is pinpointed directly toward Earth.
Regardless, we have no stronger evidence of the ordinary existence of BHs. The evidence for black holes is so great that I will put most of those people who deny their existence into the same kind of category as flatEathers; OK, not QUITE as bad as flateathers but, still, similar enough to them especially as just like them they deny any evidence that contradicts their delusional beliefs no matter how good that evidence. I don't know what explanation they have for the observed gravitational effects and the event horizons etc. If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years, the nature of the Milky Way's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1 to 5 kpc 3,, ly  or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly according to some other sources  from a pole to the other one.
But why should they be? The evidence for black holes is so great Except, as noted in article above, that few if any observations actually match predictions. The religiousness on display by the darkists is somewhat amusing. Says the Thunderdolt zealot. Hey, RealityCheck, don't bother with this group. They have never even tried to talk to one another. Deniers: There is something there with a lot of gravity and a very small diameter. That picture up there is a picture of whatever you call that thing. I don't care about the failings of the math in the standard model.
That's just math. Get an arithmetic that doesn't allow division by zero, if you want it to correspond to natural systems. I know it's unfortunate, but it's true that you have to come up with a much better option in order to sway the opinion of the crowd. Cold lcdm-ers: They are not saying there is nothing there with strong gravitational effects. They are not even objecting to most of the parts of your theory. They're objecting to the failings of your math.
Singularities are nonsensical. Division by zero is undefined, it doesn't happen in the real world. Things that you call "infinite" are not infinite. The gravity is not infinite, and the surface area and volume are not zero. They're just approaching those values from our perspective. But mostly they're objecting to your seemingly blind faith in the leaps of logic that are needed to choose dark matter and dark energy as the only solution for pulling the pieces of your theory together, when the observations are open to interpretation and the math is known a to produce errors like division by zero and b to allow any solution at all if you add enough dimensions.
That's not explanation, it's approximation. If the jet is indeed pointing almost directly at earth, that means that the jet and thus the holes rotational axis is pointing into the galactic plane rather than perpendicular to it. I always imagined that the black hole would rotate so that the axis of the hole was perpendicular to the rotation plane because that is the way the solar system is organized not that it has a jet, but that the solar equator corresponds roughly to the equatorial plane containing planetary orbits.
But heck, you learn something every day if your lucky! Was there a gamma ray burst when it became a black hole? If there was, could that event have caused a mass extinction? Which is a lie.
The orbits of the stars tell us that there is a massive object there. This predicts that we should see gravitational redshift when S2 made its closest approach to the BH. We did. The occasional flares are perfectly in line with accretion. On the other hand, you have nothing.
Note how the "unscattered" observation appears to be nothing like the unscattered simulation. But who cares about predictions and science when discussing astrophysics. Notice how a scientifically illiterate believer in mythology-based woo, feels the need to comment on things that he doesn't understand? Whydening Gyre. Here is as good as any place else Sirius is away 8. Jupiter has a radius of 69, km and technology can not see what's under the atmosphere. The satellites can not be seen through the Titan moon atmosphere, you are explaining fairy tales about watching through 3, , ly.
If the diameters of a galactical central object are estimated to be a few tens of thousands of light-years, are measured there They are not. Since WE are only 26k lightyears from the center, your estimate would have US as part of the Central object. Thus it follows that it is also the meeting ground for all intelligence in the galaxy. The biggest power source for potential beacons in the galaxy. Probably not. Stars move. Millions of years ago, the axis of this black hole was likely not pointed at us. Unlike the hundreds of billions of stars and black holes in the rest of the galaxy, this jet is coming from the one, single supermassive black hole at the center.
So, one in million is as unlikely as winning the lottery. Would the orbits of these stars or the accretion disk be different than if the axis was perpendicular to the galactic plane? Lastly, if the jet is pointing in our direction will that limit our ability to observe and study the BH?
My understanding is stars rotate roughly perpendicular to their ecliptic plane. What's more, anything orbiting close enough to the star either rotates perpendicular to the ecliptic as well, or else eventually stops rotating relative to the central body due to tidal forces. Geocentrism has a long history in "science", such as epicycles. Forgot about the whole sphere thing. How's that for geocentrism? Our million mass BH At this galactic centre of mass this galactic galaxies rotational axis where this BH rotates with its stars as its axis are pointing perpendicular to the plane of this galaxy this BHs axis is in line with this galaxies axis of rotation this BHs radiative radiation is emanating from its spin-axis as nice as it is to think this radiation is in line of sight it's not to be this BH is to big it contains millions of stars it is rotating with this Milkyway where its arms containing our earth are as spokes extending from this BHs equator We are not in line of sight of this blackholes spin-axis.
It's unlikely that they were formed together, and even more unlikely that any gravitomagnetic effects would extend so far. It shouldn't. It hasn't stopped us seeing the stars orbiting it. Keep in mind also that this was all done with 86GHz, whereas the EHT observes at GHz, which is kind of like the difference between infrared and ultraviolet, which are at opposite ends of the visible spectrum. There wasn't likely even an Earth when this black hole got started. They don't get this big that quickly in a sparse environment like the Milky Way Galactic Center. You shouldn't think of the axis as static.
It's bound to precess, as all spinning objects do. The fact it is not symmetric tends to militate toward the conclusion that we're not seeing an accretion disk face-on, which would further militate toward the conclusion that the jet, if any, is not pointed directly at us. It's never dawned upon you that first of all you need to get a picture before ANY of your fantasy conclusions can be proven in the affimative?
Schneibo, ever notice that EVERY explanation you posit for almost any Pop-Cosmology fantasy is an explanation for why it can't be seen? I have no idea what you expect to be "seen," Benni. So far you're rejecting everything without any scientific basis, no links, no quotes, nothing but horseshit. All you seem to do is troll. Jealous much? Just askin' the dude who can't figure out half-life and uses "gay" as an insult. Wanna see the link and quote again? Benni If I recall correctly you have a fantasy that a free neutron will decay in exactly 14 minutes and 42 seconds because it's an immutable law of physics.
Am I wrong? You know, a 4 million solar mass object? So where's the pic? Da Schneib I do not need a picci of this blackhole-pulsar star this is not the question I asked but you answered my question the question was this radiation from the spin axis which you answered from its spin axis as you went further demonstrating the mechanics of a pulsar star where we are actually observing radiation from a precessing spin-axis Which is Jocelyn Bell Burnell's Pulsar Star. Benni tries the standard troll tactic of reversing the ground, well known to all Trump giant orange anus worshippers.
No, Benni, you make the assertion you support it with scholarly links and quotes or you're lying again. Simple as that. You say it you support it. You got anything you'd like to ask me to provide links and quotes for, Benni? Or are you sure I'd be able to and trying to hide from it?
This article is incoherent and almost completely uninformative. Rewrite or delete. In search of black holes and dark matter astrophysicists are relying on indirect observations. It would seem that the measurement of the event horizon of a black hole directly would be a direct evidence. However, by the nature of a horizon, any real measurement of the event horizon will be indirect. The result will be determined by the simple quality of the resulting image that does not depend on the properties of the spacetime within the image.
So, it will be also indirect and an existence of BH is a hypothesis. There is NO images of the Black Hole that is supposedly in the centre of our galaxy. Good of you to point that out. Artists, Simulators and modelers have no place in Astrophysics. Keep an eye out for that. I wonder if instead of the radio jet-pole we are looking down if they have not detected the blue-shift bright spot of synchrotron radiation from the edge of the accretion disc coming Towards us.
Or even blue shift of the x-rays from the matter infalling, boosting the light to higher value due to the fact that the matter creating the light is moving a good chunk of lightspeed towards us itself as it infalls. That should give a similar effect as what they state they are seeing and would be a lot safer for us, in the long run, than looking down a radio jet's throat.
In a Court of Law, such "evidence" would be deemed as inadmissible due to it being so indeterminable. Benni They will want to build and send off bigger and more powerful telescopes enormously expensive to get closer to the "target" - perhaps to the edge of the Solar System - and then rehire the Simulator to again simulate more images so that all we will be able to see are simulations - rather than the "real Black Hole". I ask you - Will doing the same thing over and over and over again - while expecting a different outcome make sense to you?
Not to me it doesn't.
Just wait two hours and look again; if it isn't gone it's following us. The solar system travels one millionth of a degree around the center of the galaxy every 1. If the beam is only one millionth of a degree wide, then it has been tracking us for 26 years between observations? The odds get even slimmer if they tend to have axis of rotation perpendicular to their galactic planes.
In short, if that figure three hundred millionths of a degree is accurate to describe the width of this jet, then this is almost certainly some type of beacon. Just wait 2 hours and look again, if it isn't gone it's following us. Jan 23, We can be certain any intelligence in the galaxy will want to travel near the center to study the only Supermassive black hole in the galaxy. Thus, the center is the meeting spot for all intelligence.
Of course, with their powerful telescopes they could observe the alleged Black Hole from a great enough distance that their ship would be movable to a safer location. If, however, their home planet is within the "danger zone" of the alleged Black Hole that is threatening and their tech is still too much like ours - they may be sending out "distress" signals to anyone in the vicinity to come to their rescue.
Put another way, this jet is only about times as wide as the earth. Somehow, it's been tracking us for 26 years? All while the sun is moving further than that round the center every two hours?
If that millionth of a degree figure is accurate, the most likely conclusion is that aliens are skipping rocks or something off the thing to make beacon jets of radio waves pointed at blue planets. Hitting the earth, a planet 25, light years away with a beacon only times as wide as the planet for 26 years is darn good aim. Still waiting for links and quotes. Whydening Gyre You are trying to picking up points on the way: deny official evidence.
These are quotes from Wikipedie. Do you have some of your evidence? Correct it in Wikipedia etc. Just telling you what my input has been We are 26kly from galactic center.. The "galactic central object" is not "a few 10s of thousands of years That's all. There are none so blind as those who will not see.
Cranks can't count. By your rule, DNA would be inadmissible Phil's keepers reported his weather prediction Friday morning on the U. Whydening Gyre "If the diameters of a galactical central … or 40 thousand ly on the equator and 30 thousands ly according to some other sources " " Estimates for the diameter of the Milky Way galaxy range from , light years up to , light years.
The diameter in the equatorial plane is estimated to be 40, light years. Thanks for the response Da Schneib, it's appreciated. So what? So your 'logic' here is that if our technology cannot see through the massively thick atmosphere of a planet or moon then 'therefore' none of our technology via radio and infrared astronomy can see through the dust clouds of space because of those dust clouds being MUCH further away and being many light-years across?
Flawed reasoning. What we know of it comes from data collected in infrared and radio wavelengths. These wavelengths can pass through the dust and gas and reach Earth-based telescopes. The above is just common science knowledge. And how far away it is or how wide it is doesn't stop those wavelengths passing through those dust clouds. Thus this science is NOT fairy tales! Does arguing with belief driven people on a science agglomeration site about the same crank theories make sense? Left upper panel, artificial simulation, lower right panel Let's find out Your accentuation of the word massive shows your ignorance of the concept of density.
No surprise there given your inability to comprehend half life. Joined by the "pictures or it's not real" crowd whose minds stopped developing at the age of These are the type of folks who don't believe we landed on the moon and say dumb crap like "show us a picture of the flag if we really landed there and planted it! Sod off you cretin. You have been shown the papers where detections are made long after Technology that can not be measured there in the Sun system, does the god right behind the leg excellently work?
Satellites in orbits around the planet and telescopes from the earth give results, only where it suits someone to tell the story. You can do better than stupidity. The radio wave technology must work at small distances equally and better of larger distances. Are you actually saying here that what we observe through our telescopes is caused in some way only by what we want to see i.
If so, I say that's false. For example, if our telescopes tell us indirectly via use and observations and then scientific deductions the story of the universe being very old, I for one would think it's very old. The brightest source in the very high resolution near infrared image to the right is IRS 7, a red supergiant that puts out most of its energy in the near infrared. The other bright stars are also very young and massive. The blue-appearing ones in the center of the image are a unique clustering of very luminous, massive stars.
Any black hole must be invisible. If the black hole dominated the energy of the Galactic Center, it would be the second brightest source in the infrared image. It is seen infrequently in infrared, as you have been told countless times, you braindead moron. It is an inactive BH, so there is not a permanent IR feature.
As the day draws closer As the nights get shorter the warmth of the sun brings these spring flowers closer to flowering time waits for no man as March march's forward that most feared day is arriving there is no going back it is a sad day as Steven hawking due to unnecessary delays and barracking this day of The Picci Steven hawking waited all his life to see will sorely miss but he will be consoled and dismayed by this Picci because when this Picci arrives arrives in the cold light of day the eyes of the world will be on this Picci it will be more famous than that enigmatic smile this Picci is going to be the most almighty flop the world has experienced in photography of simulation as everyone will say but where is this photograph of this blackhole This is not a blackhole.
You have to reserve your judgement on judgement day, JD. The problem is the presentation of the measurements made. We do not need to be idiots and smoke their pranks and ridicule readers. If astronomers can not know technology does not measure what's inside Jupiter, then nobody can talk about fictional black holes. Each frog prophesies from coffee grounds in the cup. Please do not take nothing, from my comments, personally. In the discussion I always turn to the authors of the article. I comment exclusively articles that do not have connections with physics and cleverness.
We have measured enough velocities of stars to measure the gravitational field accurately. Even if it doesn't make much energy, and is virtually invisible, it turns out there is a very massive more than 3 million sun masses black hole right in the center. Just as I said all along. I was specifically addressing the 7th photo frame from the top of the page within the context of: How do you explain the well known fact that the science of astronomy has CLEARLY done just that i.
Benni I'm starting to believe you have no reading compression skills at all and rely on pictures alone to learn. On this scale, its motion would be imperceptibly small, so these measurements demonstrate that it is truly undetected - there is no source to be seen under the yellow star. IR is EM wavelength - light. How could we see IR of a BH? Phyllis Harmonic.
The most massive stellar object in the galaxy is so big that it's "invisible" even after all that infrared filtering you were touting? First of all, it is not a "stellar object"- it's what becomes of one or more stellar objects above a certain size after they gravitationally collapse. Secondly, you can't see anything that isn't either radiating or reflecting light, regardless of its size. A black hole is such an object. It's not able to reflect light as it absorbs any light that impinges on it. And it's not radiating light of any wavelength because no light can escape from it.
The only light that's visible in the immediate region of a black hole is that that's generated from in-falling, hot matter. Secondly, you can't see anything that isn't either radiating or reflecting light No one has redefined anything, you impertinent twat. You just keep shitting the same turds expecting them to magically turn into "real science.
Fuck your inane nonsense. I'm done suffering your foolishness. Scroll back and se what Jax Pavan has told you I take it you're an avid reader of science fiction novels. There seems to be an aversion amongst these certain humans who frequent this website - that any evidence of intelligent life forms on other planets and in either the Milky Way or other galaxies is a threat against them personally - as humans. Anthropocentrists to the core, they are - and quite possibly dangerous to any visitors from another world who identify themselves as such.
There would be such intolerant behaviours and madness amongst them. Why do you keep coming back to physorg phorums if it pains you so? Are you a masochist? Do you enjoy reading your own tripe in your obvious loneliness for companionship - even if only typing your BS on a keyboard? Are you he? SEU Are you spokesperson for intelligent life forms from exoplanets?
I have no doubt that life exists beyond earth but we have no proof yet. Are you from an exoplanet? Are you the proof? In the 20th Century there were those individuals who laid under an IR lamp to warm their aching muscles.
Too long under the lamp and skin could become burnt. But IR does emit a reddish glow. Infrared radiation has a wavelength from about nm to 1 mm, and is emitted particularly by heated objects. IR waves should be emitted by Black Holes also even if only slightly - which would render the BH visible - if it exists. I am not a spokesperson for them. They have their own "League of Planets" I believe it's called. I am stationed on planet Earth and stuck here for a long while, along with my compatriots - to observe, learn and record. Humans have a long track record of violence, bigotry, intolerance, ignorance, madness, aggressiveness which is apparent in this website , suspiciousness of things they don't comprehend or accept, and other equally traits that render them too dangerous to be dealt with.
No proof. And yet, it is believed by most that alien life forms cannot possibly exist. SEU So you are not human and you have been stationed here by the "League of Planets" to observe, learn and record humans. Why not? Gravity is a weak force. LOL Just because Matter is seen to be infalling into the Black Hole doesn't necessarily mean that nothing can come out of it.
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I think it's more about that it carries the tone of something concerning religion. Then we found out in only the last few hundred years all those heavenly bodies are just other bodies of mass little different than the ground we walk on, so nix worshipping that stuff anymore. Your reading comprehension is off today. Try reading what I've said again, yes?
SEU So you are human but you have been stationed here by the "League of Planets" to observe, learn and record other humans. All their idols have now been replaced by governmental bodies, movie stars, and media. They are entranced by that which they think will save them from starvation, homelessness, boredom, bad health, and ultimately - death.
Atheists are not keen on dying since they don't believe in an Afterlife unless they see evidence of it. LOL But if they see evidence of it, that would mean that they're already dead. Or at least, their bodies are dead or dying. So they have no use for religions or the religious such as Christians and Jews. Islamic leaders are liars, telling of 72 virgins if a man dies in battle. Religions are still fear of the unknown, but not so much fear anymore as a willingness to "toe the line" for the sake of one's own conscience and self-satisfaction.
The Universe was necessarily the size that it is as that was the Decision that was made. It makes pretty good sense to me. No, not really an afterthought. He would point out that herbal education and practice was legally irradicated in America from about to , during the period of persecution mentioned above Milton, , so that the traditional system of herbal medicine was not readily understood by younger Americans.
It was maintained in isolated pockets, like Southern Appalachia, where Tommie Bass practiced Crellin and Philpott, The above survey reveals polarities in the herbal field between holism and biomedicine, tradition and innovation. The author suggests that this circumstance recommends herbalists to the study of the concept of the paradigm and its application within their field.
Paradigms can be theoretical or practical. Thus, the theory of general relativity represented a change in paradigm from previous, Newtonian physics. In the same fashion, the introduction of the microscope brought about a paradigmatic change by allowing an entirely new view of the world. Together or individually, paradigms. Such traditions are often named by scientists and historians. Examples are Ptolemaic astronomy, Copernican astronomy, Aristotelian, Newtonian, and Einsteinian physics, corpuscular optics, and wave optics Kuhn, Within Western herbalism the author notes such named traditions as Greek or Galenic medicine, physio-medicalism, and eclecticism.
When a paradigm has been accepted by a group of scholars and a discipline is organized around it, practitioners within the field no longer need to dispute fundamental assumptions. Work is now directed by a recognized conceptual structure and generally recognized definitions, resulting in a continuous development of interrelated information. Problems are identified and solved within the established paradigm. At this point the field usually generates its own societies, journals, and claims for recognition in higher educational facilities. When a paradigm does not adequately explain study results or the nature of the world satisfactorily, alternate paradigms are suggested and attract different adherents.
This leads to conflict within the field. During scientific revolution a field is fraught with uncertainties and unanswered questions. However, as new experience, research data, and instrumentation are acquired, guiding concepts become clarified and competing explanations are eliminated until a single or several complementary paradigms emerge which are able to adequately account for the observed data. A scientific culture that has reached this level of agreement has more authority than one still developing basic concepts Milton, Kuhn was skeptical about the objectivity of debate during periods of competition between different paradigms.
This position has been controversial.
Some critics take issue with the suggestion, as they perceive it, that science is a mere belief system Vickers, ; Horgan, But science has never been based on certainty. However, he recognized that it was easy to misunderstand. Most professional journals in biomedicine have rejected discussion of CAM theories, concepts, and paradigms.
They advocate study of CAM products, practices, and therapies using the biomedical perspective or paradigm alone. For example, in the editors of NEJM expressed the following opinion:. There is only medicine that has been adequately tested and medicine that has not, medicine that works and medicine that may or may not work. Once a treatment has been tested rigorously, it no longer matters whether it was considered alternative at the outset. The editors of JAMA proposed that dietary supplements including herbs should be tested according to the biomedical model, regulated as drugs if they are shown to be biologically active, and removed from the marketplace if not DeAngelis and Fontanarosa, Only the 6th Report of the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology does not follow this line, but advocates both quantitative and qualitative studies of complementary and alternative medicine.
Vickers developed arguments against the use of paradigms in the study of conventional and unconventional medicine. Some are general objections to Kuhn. Others refer to the debate between CAM and biomedicine. However, writing at a later date, Kollman and Vickers , published a series of articles on complementary and alternative medicine in the BMJ acknowledging the existence of the paradigmatic argument.
In a subsequent article in the BMJ, Leibovici addressed a problem raised by the introduction of CAM: which therapies and methods should be subjected to biomedical testing and which should not? This contrasts with the paradigm he attributed to holistic medicine:. The explanations of the practitioners of alternative medicine are giving our patients a set of magical rules to control the physical world, rules that have the human as the fulcrum.
The same tendency is seen in the previous biomedical writers. They feel at liberty to ignore the arguments of those they challenge. In the past, adherents of systems medicine has chosen to ignore have been outlawed Milton, Leibovici is followed by a commentary written by one of the editors of the BMJ. This rather strong language carries the implication, at least to the ear of the present author, that average people cannot or should not think for themselves.
The present author feels it is necessary to point out what he considers to be poor definition of several terms in the articles by Leibovici and Haynes Both these authors show a tendency to confuse empiricism and experimentation. Like many modern scientific authors, these two do not differentiate between empiricism and experimentation, yet these are entirely different scientific methods. Empiricism refers to observation and experience yielding unsorted data, while experimentation refers to designed experiments yielding statistically significant information Carr, ; Kosso, Advocates of complementary and alternative medicine frequently argue that it is not possible to test their approach by conventional standards because the reductionism inherent in the biomedical model eliminates variables intrinsic to holistic practice Goldstein, This difficulty has also been recognized by biomedical writers:.
Designing appropriate controls for some complementary therapies. However, research models have been developed that do take into account the important holistic paradigms so easily removed by reductionism. An example of one will be given in subsection 8. The author concludes that biomedical research, to the extent it is directed by the methods advocated by authors and editorialists in major American biomedical journals, is not attempting to expand biomedical hegemony to include CAM products and methods while disempowering competing professions and their paradigms.
This is in line with established legislation in the United States, which makes it illegal for both medical doctors and lay people to practice herbalism and homeopathy in almost all states, but protects the sale of the products Milton, In Britain, on the other hand, where such practices enjoy legal status, the editoral tone is slightly more accomodating. The paradigmatic discussion advocated by holistic practitioners represents a response to problems perceived in conventional biomedicine by practitioners and the public alike.
Ignoring paradigmatic debate sidesteps widespread criticism. If these paradigms were being advanced by cranks with no public following they would be irrelevant, but complementary and alternative medicine enjoys enormous popularity. A recent survey of US consumers indicated that there were more visits million to CAM practitioners in than to primary care physicians million Eisenberg, et al. About a half dozen prominent paradigms are frequently cited, both by exponents and critics, as characteristic of holistic medicine.
Kaptchuk and Eisenberg mention nature, vitalism, science, and spirituality. Kollman and Vickers list holism, the self healing ability of the body, spirituality, and the treatment of the individual. The present paper arbitrarily describes the following seven: the goodness of nature, self healing, spirituality, vitalism, the individual, holism, and energetics.
Differences in approach to nature constitute paradigmatic choices. Belief in the innate goodness of nature is almost universal in holistic medicine and has been marked as such by most researchers and advocates Goldstein, In Western herbalism plants are generally looked upon as representatives of the innate goodness of nature. This tradition goes back at least to Samuel Thomson, who popularized herbal medicine in pioneer America in the early nineteenth century as an alternative to toxic mineral medicines and bloodletting Thomson, a.
Different perspectives have been used to explain the goodness of nature. Kloss, a Seventh Day Adventist, entitled his famous herbal Back to Eden , giving his argument a Biblical dimension. The self healing ability of the organism is recognized by both conventional and unconventional medicine. CAM places a high regard on the constructive, health-maintaining and self-healing capacity of the body.
Disease is sometimes considered by CAM practitioners to be the result of not living and eating in harmony with nature. Even further, there is sometimes an emphasis on the positive aspects of disease. Blessed by Illness Mees, , argued in favor of the strengthening effects of childhood diseases well before this concept appeared in conventional immunology.
Homeopathy developed a positive view of disease symptoms, which are looked upon as the healthy response of the sick organism. In homeopathy, the remedy sometimes temporarily intensifies the symptoms in order to strengthen the curative response of the organism and allow it to triumph over the disease Panos and Heimlich, In naturopathy, diet and exercise are used to strengthen the organism to overcome disease Lindlahr, Goldstein emphasizes that holistic medicine appeals to many people who feel they need to make decisions contributing to their spiritual, as well as their physical, well-being.
This may draw them away from conventional medicine, which directs its effects mainly towards the condition of the physical body. Materialism is a dominant characteristic of modern science and medicine that differentiates it from holistic movements. Vitalism is the concept that the living body is animated by a spiritual or nonmaterial agency that marks the true difference between life and death.
This is a characteristic belief of the holistic health movement. Thus, traditional Chinese medicine calls the life force in the body qi, while Ayurveda calls it prana, and homeopathy calls it the dynamis or vital force Kaptchuk and Eisenberg, Herbalism sometimes shares this view. However, another prominent group of botanical physicians in the nineteenth century, the eclectics, were more empirically ruthless and eschewed theories in general, including vitalism. Life was not a concept, but an experience to be achieved through examination of the living body, in health and disease Scudder, a.
Holistic medicine places more emphasis on the individual than biomedicine. Each client is evaluated as unique and each practitioner is accepted as a unique person with skills differing from his or her peers. The subjective symptoms, attitude, problems, self-evaluation, and conditions of the patient are given greater weight than in biomedical case taking. Treatment strategy is usually designed individually, on a case by case basis. For many clients this increased attention is a source of comfort which might itself have curative or psychological value Goldstein, Holism could be considered the fundamental concept behind holistic medicine, since it has been adopted by practitioners to distinguish themselves from conventional medicine Yahn, Holism studies the whole, while conventional medicine studies the parts.
The latter approach is called reductionism. A medical textbook defines reductionism as. In holistic medicine both the organism and the disease are frequently looked upon as whole and complete entities and analysis begins from this perspective, rather than from the parts or details Goldstein, The description of the whole nature of an entity demands its own vocabulary.
Energetics is described below for those not familiar with the concept. Virtually all major systems of traditional medicine, including Greek, Ayurvedic, and Chinese use some system of energetics. Western medicine and herbalism, as practiced in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, utilized terms such as irritation, excitation, relaxation, constriction, contraction, depression, etc. Because energetics are not used in biomedicine, their importance in traditional and holistic practice is sometimes missed.
For instance, Crellin and Philpott describe the herbs used by Tommie Bass but do not mention his diagnostic or pathological conceptions.
Abstract: Nebula is an interactive prototype used to examine the properties of textiles, fashion accessories, and digital technologies to arrive at a garment design that brings these elements together in a cohesive manner. It renews links to places of inhabitation or more often these days, reinhabitation , taking on an ecopoetical purpose in the search for beauty and meaning in local conditions. LG —92, The poem depends upon the gestalt of the alternating trope. This meme is so compelling that it was independently developed by cultures around the globes; it is the origin of religion—a set of stories about the world that must be accepted on faith, and never questioned. This thesis gives a glimpse of what this future may look like. I reach to the polished breasts of melons.
I asked his life-long friend and student, Darryl Patton, how Bass visualized disease. Vickers notes that complementary and alternative authors frequently focus on paradigmatic questions rather than research. He detected an inverse correlation between discussion of paradigms and the production of useful research. The above enumeration of complementary and alternative paradigms tends to confirm Vickers , for none of them address the issue of research or the way in which the information that constitutes CAM has been derived from nature.
By describing major characteristics of holistic medicine they serve an important function, but this does not directly contribute to research. However, this does not mean that research cannot be based upon paradigmatic constructs. Founding research which included the characteristic paradigms of holistic medicine would represent a positive response to the challenge laid down by Haynes The above paradigms may be used as starting points for holistic and herbal research.
However, the author is of the opinion that it is more important to first define basic kinds of scientific research, before setting off on an examination of specific holistic paradigms. For this, the paradigmatic model is also available. Kuhn demonstrated that even within a single scientific field different kinds of science could be identified. He differentiated the mathematical or rational approach from the experimental.
He did not define them as paradigms, but they have been widely viewed as such Eamon, Empiricism has also been identified as a paradigm Ginzburg, cited by Eamon, The present author found it necessary to separate revelation into two separate categories. These documents are largely presented as revelations, mostly from the god of knowledge, Hermes. This method is not based on revelations from gods, visions, or dreams, but is analytical see section 8.
Hence, the revelatory paradigm has been split, in this paper, into the visionary and analogical approaches. This gives a total of six primary scientific methods, procedures, or paradigms:. This collection is not intended to be viewed as a comprehensive and exhaustive typology of science, but as a practical model for a qualitative study of medicine and herbalism.
Observation and experience are recognized as essential methods of knowledge-gathering in science and medicine Carr, ; Kosso, ; Fugh-Berman, However, more recent historians of science have concluded that empiricism by itself does constitute a scientific paradigm Ginzburg, cited by Eamon, The question is rather technical and for the purpose of this paper empiricism will be considered a scientific paradigm. The Hippocratic physicians represent a school of medicine largely founded upon empirical methods.
Their writings on epidemics and aphorisms are collections of unsorted observations and experiences, such as Kuhn describes. Empiricism is derived from the Greek word for experience. The development of this method was the standard for which Hippocratic physicians strove:. Because of their empirical approach, the Hippocratic physicians were attacked by contemporaries who did not consider such efforts to be scientific.
One Hippocratic treatise, Tradition in Medicine, responded to this charge by arguing. Tradition in Medicine refers, for example, to altering the amounts and kinds of food on the sick to understand their effect Hippocrates, The treatise argues against any standard that is not empirical:. The earliest comprehensive writers on the properties of plant medicines, Dioscorides and Plinius first century CE , were largely empirical, though Ritter discovered a pharmacological order in Dioscorides that was not noticed by his readers.
These will be discussed under the next subsection, 8. Empirical and rational methods were sometimes maintained alongside each other. This dual classification was still used by Salmon in his English Herbal. Western herbalism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was largely the product of a combination of empirical experience, traditional indications carried down from the ancient literature of European medicine, and new theories, practices, and remedies introduced from America Webb, The two most influential schools of the period were physio-medicalism, derived largely from the teachings of Samuel Thomson, and eclecticism, of which the leading thinker was John Scudder Haller, Scudder advocated a doctrine of relatively pure empiricism.
He says the use of medicines is based largely on tradition and experience in all schools:.
Remedies are not given because they are opposed to or agree with disease action, but simply because they have previously been used with reputed good success. For Scudder, life is not a principle or theory, but a condition to be observed with the senses. Likewise, disease is not a name or concept, but a disturbed expression of life to be sensed by the physician. The first lesson in diagnosis is, that this wrong life finds a distinct and uniform expression in the outward manifestations of life, cognizable by our senses. The first lesson in therapeutics is. It is rosy, a light shade of carmine and lake, and is clear, transparent, and offers no darkness, or admixture with blue, purple, or brown.
Scudder b uses case histories to demonstrate his approach. He gives 18 cases under ague or intermittent fever [malaria or influenza with periodic chills], 18 under remittent fever [malaria or influenza with chills at odd intervals], 8 cases of continued fever [septicemia], 4 cases of small pox, 6 of measles, 7 under rheumatism, 4 under infantile pneumonia, 4 cases of infantile cholera, and 2 of dysentery. Very seldom does he use the same two remedies in a row; he is trying to show how a variety of remedies can be suited to different presentations of the same disease or symptom picture.
Samuel Thomson , a self-taught New Hampshire farmer who popularized herbal medicine in the early United States, is generally considered to be the single most influential figure in the history of nineteenth and early twentieth century Western herbal medicine Webb, ; Haller, He developed a materia medica and theory of herbal treatment based on experience. Thomson developed his knowledge of materia medica largely by tasting plants to see what their action upon himself would be:. Notice how Thomson b adopted a rule, based upon his experience.
Unlike Scudder a , he is concerned throughout his work to discover rules and theories for practice:. All fevers proceed from the same cause, differing only in the symptoms; and may be managed. Thomson thus arrived at his method of treatment:. Thomson a also gives many case histories scattered throughout the text. However, these mostly serve an autobiographical purpose, illustrating how he learned something, or describing his hard usage at the hands of physicians and ungrateful patients, or some remarkable cure. In some instances, not enough information is given to consider the case history illustrative of any medical lesson.
At the end he gives a group of case histories certified by witnesses. These provide eyewitness testimony and contain few facts that are educational. Another area in which empiricism enters deeply into herbal medicine is the derivation of herb uses from tasting plants. This takes two forms: sensing the taste and sensing the action. Thomson, above, provides an example of an herbalist tasting a plant to determine its action. The relationship of the taste of herbs has long been considered empirical evidence of their properties. There is a long, but forgotten history of this in Western herbalism Crellin and Philpott, ; it is also characteristic of Chinese herbalism Bensky and Gamble, , and Ayurveda Lad and Frawley, The author has observed several herbalists teaching the properties of herbs by having their students taste them.
Case histories are not considered without value in biomedicine. There are scientific standards for making and reporting observations, and keeping them as independent of bias and theory as possible. Here too the case history is important. An even larger part. The same author ranks the use of the case history in Chinese Medicine to obtain knowledge very highly:. Scheid likens the practice of Chinese medicine to the practice of law, because it argues from case law, experience, and judgment.
In the eyes of the present author, this is an equally useful metaphor for Western herbalism. Indeed, the incorporation of modern scientific evidence and research into jurisprudence, without destroying the traditional empirical foundation of the legal system, might be considered an ideal model for the incorporation of biomedical research into the originally empirical and traditional methodology of herbal medicine. It should also be acknowledged that empiricism is an important component of modern medical practice, even within evidence-based medicine Sackett, et al.
Lown argues that it has become undervalued. Sir John Hill, in the mid-eighteenth century, attempted to establish some order by which the medicinal properties of plants might be rationally known. He suggested the use of taste. It is known to work by urine, and to be good against the gravel. We will suppose no more known concerning this kind. Hill also explains that plants that are similar in appearance are not only probably akin, but likely have similar properties. Thus, the common mallow and hollyhock resemble marshmallow in the construction of their flowers, and their tastes confirm similar uses Hill, , This is the method he followed early in his practice when he adopted sumach species not given to help him in a serious epidemic:.
It is often noted in books about herbalism that humans learned about plants from watching animals use them Crellin and Philpott, However, actual examples of this are seldom found in the literature. The author offers the following example. Paul Red Elk , personal communication , was raised by his grandfather and grandmother, traditional Lakota Indian herbalists on Rosebud Reservation, in western South Dakota.
He explained that sumach Rhus aromatica, R. It was observed that the female deer, after giving birth, would eat sumach leaves and lick her vagina.
The use of sumach for afterbirth infection, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, and vaginal hemorrhage is found in modern herbal literature Menzies-Trull, ; Fleming, The history of the case revealed the fact that several months previously her attention was first attracted by frequent calls to urinate, and that she was compelled to get up at night to void large quantities of urine; this condition of things had been steadily increasing, until she was compelled to abandon her ordinary household duties.
McClanahan left a tincture of Rhus aromatica, ten drops every four hours. At the end of a week her husband reported that the urine was diminished and she was greatly improved, except for a pain and soreness across the kidneys. McClanahan gave a blistering plaster over the kidneys as a stimulant.
At the end of four months the patient was in decent health McClanahan, cited by Fyfe, The author located another case of diabetes mellitus [type II] treated with Rhus aromatica Goss, He also documented from his own practice cases of palliation or improvement of diabetes mellitus type II symptoms with Rhus typhina , and several cases of improvement of diabetes insipidus Wood, Thus, a case series for sumach could include various symptoms of fluid loss, since it is widely classified as an astringent and traditionally used to treat various kinds of fluid loss Fyfe, Thus, hemorrhaging from the vagina, excessive urination, diarrhea, and excessive perspiration all could be used in a case series relating to sumach.
The use of rational theories to structure medical practice is ancient. The Hippocratic writers lived during a period of transition in science from empiricism to rationalism and theory. He defines them, not as physical sensations or entities, but as general principles operating in nature:. The present author interprets this to mean that cold conjoins substances together that have nothing in common like water, a bug, and dirt in an ice cube , while heat separates them water becomes vapor, the bug and dirt become ash.
Dry is that which gives shape, while damp is that which lacks shape, but can be contained by shape. From the Aristotelian perspective, water is damp when it is liquid and dry when it is ice! From Galen onwards, the four qualities were the major classification system used to describe constitutions, pathological changes in patients too hot, too cold, etc. Cumston, Many of the descriptive terms used to classify herbs in modern Western herbal literature were originally arranged into categories by Galen, but that the organizational theme was lost when Galenic medicine was rejected several hundred years ago Cumston, The author suggests that modern herbalists study this system to reclaim an organizational perspective and enlarge their vocabulary for description of herb activities.
An excellent overview of the Galenic method for using herbs was written in by Nicholas Culpeper. Properties softening, hardening, purging, loosening, contracting or binding or drawing, dispersing, repelling, cleansing, agglutinative, preserving, nourishing, and diuretic. The author also recommends study of the Thomsonian or physio-medical system, which offered a rationale somewhat different from the Galenic. The present author wholeheartedly agrees with this recommendation.
He has observed that most modern Western herbalists have little understanding of traditional theories of Western herbalism. Hence, he suggests the arguments of Scheid can be fruitfully applied to the study of Western herbalism. A final point should be noted regarding the theoretical approach to medicine. Rationalism can yield many different interpretations, theories, and explanations for a single phenomenon.
Reise demonstrated that historical Western medicine had generated over a dozen different theories of disease. Therefore, one no medical system can claim that it is the only rational approach Reise, Sumach Rhus coriaria was used in traditional European herbalism Gerard, Suppose a person wanted to determine if the traditional European uses resemble the American applications for Rhus aromatica, R.
According to Gerard , Galen classified sumach as cold in the second degree, dry in the third, and binding. William Salmon offers a good description of these technical terms. Cold in the second degree means that the remedy treats fever, but does not relax the mind third degree , or cause unconsciousness or death fourth degree. On the other hand, it can be used to cool on a hot summer day first degree.
Dry in the third degree means that the plant treats diarrhea and dysentery, but not fluid loss with cachexia, or consumption. These terms accurately describe the use of the American sumachs for one of their most common applications: diarrhea or dysentery Thomson, b. Fluid loss with fever McClanahan, quoted by Fyfe, is also described. Thus, the actions of the European and American sumachs seem to be quite similar.
Carr outlines three basic laws of experimental research. First, the problem to be studied must be clearly formulated in words. Second, the problem must be one that will yield useful empirical data that can be identified and collected. Whenever possible, that data should be numerical, so that idiosyncrasies and peculiarities can be factored out statistically.
Third, the events to be tested and collected must be accessible to other observers, so that the results can be checked. Today medical experimentation includes such methods as survey interviewing people on whom no intervention has been made , retrospective studies study of past events , prospective studies subjects or populations are followed into the future , pharmacological research into constituents of plants and other medicinal substances, animal trials, in vitro laboratory tests with bacteria and viruses, and clinical trials people are subjected to experimental intervention Fugh-Berman, Clinical trials are the final and highest level of medical research Fugh-Berman, Trials can be conducted at varying levels of sophistication.
In a controlled trial one group receives the intervention and one does not. In a placebo-controlled trial the group that does not receive the intervention receives a placebo. In a randomized trial people are placed into two or more groups randomly, to prevent bias on the part of the experimenters. In a double-blind study neither the subjects nor the observers know which group is which. In order to produce statistically significant results the sample size or groups measured must be large enough to minimize the possibility that the results are due to chance.
It is customary to measure the results as probabilities. A change in the use of the experimental method in medicine occurred in the s, when the cyber revolution allowed the collection and dissemination of massive amounts of data in minimal time. As the number of experiments grew it became increasingly hard for the average clinical physician to keep up with fast moving developments. Critics claimed that medical prescriptions were often based on advertising by self-interested drug companies.
New computer technology made the accumulation and digestion of massive amounts of information feasible. The publication of a digest of results from randomized controlled trials occurred in While EBM suggested that medicine could be practiced on a more scientific basis, it still acknowledged a place for clinical empiricism.
A textbook on EBM notes:. EBM is used as a standard for the study of complementary and alternative methods. Some very important criticisms of the application of the experimental method in medicine have appeared recently. Angell , a former editor of the NEJM cited elsewhere as co-author of an editorial demanding that nutritional supplements and herbs be tested like drugs , attributes poor quality studies and outright fraud to the corruptive influence of companies with huge financial stakes in the lucrative pharmaceutical industry.
Ioannidis maintains that most research methods produce results so short of statistical significance, that the findings represent the opinions of the researchers, rather than reliable data. She comes to a similar conclusion:. These problems may be contributing to the mortality and injury now becoming endemic in medical practice. Few herbalists will ever do research on pharmacological constituents, but a student might want to determine whether modern research on sumach verifies traditional herbal usage.
The plant also has antimicrobial and antiviral effects. Universal use in treating kidney and bladder ailments, hemorrhage of the womb. The high percentage of tannins alone explain the traditional applications of sumach as an astringent to prevent fluid loss. The complexity of these tannins might account for the wide applicability of sumach in many types of fluid loss. Evidence-based medicine would encourage the student to take a further step to determine whether there have been additional pharmacological, clinical, or case studies. Researchers set up a double blind randomized controlled trial with three groups, one treated by placebo, one with a single Chinese herbal formula, and one in which patients were given a formula individualized for them by one of three trained Chinese herbalists.
All patients received an individualized assessment but not the individualized formula. Results were positive:. Chinese herbal formulations individually tailored to the patient proved no more effective than standard CHM treatment. This study attempts to work within the holistic paradigm of individualized treatment.
The authors intentionally utilized the services of three herbalists, each with different training and background, since that is normative practice in CHM. Consequently, this study may be recommended as an example upon which to design research of herbalism and CAM. However, biomedicists have not largely pursued the opportunity. The author suggests that this is because such studies empower another profession in this case, Chinese herbalists , rather than biomedicists.
Milton collected many examples of research suppressed for professional self-protection. The use of visions and dreams to derive information about the natural world was and still is an accepted method in indigenous America. It takes years. An Anishinabe Ojibwe elder speaking to a folklorist in the upper peninsula of Michigan in described the use of dream in traditional Indian society. He likened the process to going to school.
Children were asked to relate their dreams to their elders. At large yearly sociopolitical gatherings, dreamers were queried by experts in the community to see what meaning their dreams had for the individual or the community. The elder likened the process to when. The visionary approach is widely used in contemporary Amazonia, where Indian cultures are comparatively intact. It is also used by South American mestizo practitioners. Ethnobotanists and pharmacologists working in Amazonia have been shocked that illiterate herbalists exhibit an understanding of complex pharmacological relationships.
When asked how they learned about these phenomena, Indian and mestizo practitioners explained that the plants told them in dreams, visions, or hallucinations Narby, In Luna documented this practice among mestizo vegetalistas mixed-blood herbalists :. One ayahuasquero shaman commented that because vegetalistas learn directly from the plants, it is thought that vegetalismo herbalism is more powerful than la medicina destudio biomedicine , since the latter is reputedly learned only from books. Another explained that the information comes directly from God:.
The use of vision and dream in ancient European science and medicine is not as frequently encountered as it is in Indian America. However, Pliny c. Pliny cites an example of the latter:. This occurrent fell out in Lacetania, the nearest part unto us of Spain. Now, as God would, when the soldier beforesaid upon his hurt received by the dog, was ready to fall into that symptom of hydrophobia, and began to fear water; there came a letter from his mother, advertising him to obey the will of God, and to do according to that which was revealed unto her by the vision.
The author submits this as an illustration of the visionary process, but admits that it is of little practical value. The assertion that wild rose cures rabies would probably be impossible to test and few herbalists today would ever have need to use it! The use of the revelatory paradigm is not unknown in modern Western herbalism.
One influential American herbalist, the late William LeSassier, derived a complete system of herbal formulation from a vision:. After a while I fell back on the bed. Out stepped a clothed figure dressed in many shades of green. Said he was Pythagorus. Hands me this book. It was full of diagrams and formulas. My wife kept on going, I just wrote it down. Up to that time I was really stumped. It allowed me to make formulas. Several contemporary herbalists teach students how to communicate with plants to gain information Cowan, ; Buhner, Both of these authors associate their methods with American Indian practices or teachers.
The use of the visionary faculty to obtain insight is not completely unrecorded within the annals of conventional science. The chemist Friedrich August Kekule actively used the hypnogogic state visions seen just before falling asleep or waking up to help him understand chemistry. Here is his description of how he came to understand the chemical structure of benzene:. Again the atoms were gamboling before my eyes. The smaller groups kept modestly in the background.
My mental eye, rendered more acute by visions of this kind, could now distinguish larger structures, of manifold conformations; long rows, sometimes more closely fitted together, all twining and twisting in snakelike motion. But look! What was that? One of the snakes had seized hold of its own tail, and the form whirled mockingly before my eyes. They too frequently saw writhing snakes forming structures similar to complex organic molecules Narby, The visionary experience is not unique among scientists:.
As mentioned in subsections 8. As long as vision and dream are not used to provide proof, it seems to the author that there cannot be any reasonable opposition to their use either in conventional science or modern herbalism to enhance creativity. The only source describing systematic visionary research in the contemporary herbal field that the author could find was Cowan The following is an example of his work:.
Johnswort was short and simple. After recounting this dream, Cowan cites a case history illustrating the successful application of the dream. Traditionally, St. In other words, meaning is derived from the resemblance between two natural entities that are similar or analogous in appearance, growth habit, or other physical traits. This technique can be employed in various ways. Some thinkers such as Francis Bacon , describe analogies that have a rational, causal relationship. Others such as Paracelsus , seek out similarities in which there is no rational or causal relationship.
The author suggests that these two methods are not entirely unrelated to each other but lie on a continuum. However, the present author believes that the analogical and magical procedures are a form of intuitive thinking, and that it is important to differentiate between this and the visionary paradigm. The magical approach forms a very definite tradition in European science, reaching a zenith in the Hermetic literature of Imperial Rome, and again in the Renaissance literature of Paracelsian natural magic Pagel, Paracelsus is generally considered to be the chief representative of the use of similars and analogies Pagel, He developed special vocabulary to express his conceptions.
Accordingly, the physical form, shape, appearance, growth habit, color, texture, etc. The disease also has a characteristic signature demonstrating its nature. Every natural entity has its own essence or archetype and therefore the natural world as a whole is the outward expression through signatures of an entire and complete archetypal world. The latter is called the macrocosm greater world , while the individual or the human race is a microcosm lesser world Pagel, For Paracelsus, the curative properties of the plant are found in the similarity of the healing agent to a person, organ, or symptom.
Here is an example of the Paracelsian method:. No one can deny this. The rhizome of Cypripedium spp. However, its reputation as a remedy for sexual dysfunction of a nervous or psychological character in both sexes survived into modern times Fyfe, Paracelsus not only claims that magic discovers the signatures, essences, and similarities which heal, but rejects literal, physical, or causal resemblance as a basis for similarity:.
In other words, a plant that looks like a brain would be medicine for the brain of a human being, but the brain of a cow would not. For example, peony Paeonia spp. Although the Paracelsian essences are hidden, they shine forth through the signatures, like a metaphorical light. In the English alchemist Thomas Vaughan wrote:. However, he too advocated the use of similars and analogies to counteract the tendency of experimental thinking to result in a fragmentary view of nature:.
The reader will observe that Bacon is proposing a causal, physical relationship in his analogy. He differentiates his kind of analogy from the. If Bacon did not believe in the superstitious and curious excesses of the analogical approach, then what was he thinking when he described the light of Nature as the source of truth and eternity independent of variability and experience? The certainty felt by Paracelsus, Vaughan, and Bacon in this method is described by Jung as a characteristic of the intuition:.
Intuition shares this quality with sensation. The intuition is frequently associated with the capacity to make mental connections between things or ideas previously not evident Jung, A subsequent thinker who advocated an intuitive approach to science was J. Goethe Goethe felt that empirical observation and rational analysis were incomplete. He advocated examination of both the external and internal impressions a thing made upon the observer. Goethe felt it was necessary to allow the internal faculties to complete their analysis of a phenomena, and not to cut them off, as he felt was customary in conventional science Whitelegg,